Friday, July 18, 2014

Three Million Underwater Volcanoes Can’t be Wrong

Underwater eruption
Ice Age Now | Jul 17, 2014

“This paper totally blows the man-made CO2 hype out of the water and underscores your own predictions of the amount if underwater volcanic activity,” says analytical chemist Hans Schreuder.

Most estimates of volcanogenic carbon dioxide emission are woefully low, says consulting geologist Timothy Casey.

An enormous and unmeasured amount of carbon dioxide degases from volcanoes, mostly submarine.

Lava contains a surprising amount of carbon dioxide, says Casey in his new paper, “Volcanic Carbon Dioxide.”  (Principia Scientific International, 16 June 2014). In fact, CO2 is the second most abundantly emitted volcanic gas next to steam.

Carbon dioxide emissions from volcanoes – especially from underwater volcanoes – dwarf anthropogenic contributions (man-made) sources, says Casey. Unfortunately, some researchers dismiss not only mid-oceanic-ridge emissions, but all other forms of submarine volcanism altogether, which is a major oversight.

According to one study, Pacific mid-plate seamounts number between 22,000 and 55,000, of which 2,000 are active volcanoes, says Casey. One researcher even dismisses those few, justifying the omission by claiming that mid oceanic ridges discharge less CO2 than is consumed by hydrothermal carbonate systems.

Submarine lakes of liquid carbon dioxide

In point of fact, says Casey, carbon dioxide escapes these hydrothermal vent systems in such quantities that it sometimes accumulates in submarine lakes of liquid carbon dioxide. There is nothing to prevent that superheated carbon dioxide from dissolving into the seawater or otherwise making its way to the surface.

Since seawater in the vicinity of hydrothermal vent systems is saturated with carbon dioxide, and since seawater elsewhere is not saturated with CO2, it stands to reason that this saturation came from the hydrothermal vent system, Casey argues. If the vent system consumed more carbon dioxide than it emitted, the seawater in the vicinity of hydrothermal vent systems would be CO2 depleted.

Because the oceans occupy twice the surface area of land, it would be easy to believe that one the oceans would contain twice the number of volcanoes as exist on land. But the number of submarine volcanoes is far, far higher than that.

3,477,403 submarine volcanoes exist worldwide

As Casey points out, after surveying 201,055 submarine volcanoes, Hillier & Watts estimated that a total of 3,477,403 submarine volcanoes exist worldwide, of which, Casey estimates, 139,096 are active.

Casey’s conclusion? Three Million Volcanoes Can’t be Wrong.

I’m including the four references that I think are most relevant.

, J. K., & Watts, A. B., 2007, “Global distribution of seamounts from ship- track bathymetry data”, Geophysical. Research. Letters, Vol. 34, L13304, doi:10.1029/2007GL029874

, I. R., 2001a short history of planet earth, 250 pp., ISBN13: 978-0-7333-1004- 0

, I. R., 2009Heaven and Earth: Global Warming, the Missing Science, 503 pp., ISBN13: 978-1-9214-2114-3

, I., 2009Air Con: The Seriously Inconvenient Truth about Global Warming, ISBN13: 978-0-9582-4014-7
See entire paper:

Thanks to Hans Schreuder for this link
“To those of us who can see through the official mist, the CO2 issue is nothing more than a political ruse, eagerly underwritten by academics who have never thought for themselves and only regurgitate what was written in their textbooks,” says Hans. “No critical thought, no acceptance that the old “masters” might have been wrong, such as Kirchoff, Arrhenius et al.”

 In an attempt to make it readable for the layman, I’ve taken great liberties with Casey’s paper, simplifying, simplifying, simplifying. If you think I went too far, you’re welcome to point out your disagreements in the comments section.

I think the original paper – 20 pages long, quite technical, with more than 60 entries in the bibliography – would have made the average reader’s eyes cross very quickly.

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